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Discover The ScienceA-Z Ingredients List For Our Supplements Range

Delve into the science behind every ingredient incorporated into our dog supplements. Handpicked by canine nutrition experts, each component in our formulas is meticulously chosen for its nutritional credentials and scientifically validated to deliver maximum impact.

Learn more in our comprehensive A-Z guide below.

Alison Frost

Author: Alison Frost

Edited By: Anna Bain

A-Z Ingredients List For Our Supplements Range

Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement.

Aloe Vera is a plant known for its nutrient-dense properties, which is why it has numerous health supporting benefits. These include Vitamins, minerals, proteins, and, significantly, anthraquinones and lignins that aid healthy digestive function.

Aloe has many digestive benefits. It activates muscle contractions to relieve stomach upset and short term constipation, while the prostaglandin properties can aid repair along your dog’s gastrointestinal tract by stimulating mucus secretions that protect the intestinal tract’s lining.

It helps soothe irritation and inflammation and assists the gut lining in tightening and maintaining the essential gut barrier. This barrier is vital in blocking pathogens, such as bacteria, yeast, and food particles, from escaping into the body and causing havoc.

Aloe also contains naturally occurring digestive enzymes that help break down food, putting less stress on the digestive system. Improved digestion helps your dog absorb essential nutrients for overall health.

The Evidence

This 2016 study published in the Integrative Medicine Journal reported that traditional carminative mucilages, such as Aloe vera inner leaf gel, marshmallow, and slippery elm (all ingredients in ProDog’s Digest supplement) are valuable water-soluble fibres and help to soothe the intestinal mucosa, as well as providing nourishment for commensal bacterial colonies. Thereby all-natural ingredients that support a balanced inflammatory response and the integrity of the digestive tract.

Additionally, in a 2004 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, oral Aloe vera gel (100 mL twice daily for 4 weeks, in a 2 : 1 ratio) was administered for active Ulcerative Colitis patients. The Aloe vera supplement significantly reduced the clinical colitis activity index and histological scores during treatment.

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant found in certain species of algae. It’s a powerful free radical scavenger, and its estimated antioxidant strength is 6,000 times more powerful than vitamin C. It’s also 500 times more potent than vitamin E, and 800 times stronger than CoQ10.

This antioxidant powerhouse contains excellent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as natural cleansing agents. It supports the immune system through boosting the body’s natural defences, clearing out free radicals and allowing the body to maintain balance.

Astaxanthin aids in the production and maintenance of beneficial gut bacteria, which also contributes to reduced inflammation and the balance required for overall health.

The evidence:

In a 2020 study, researchers fed astaxanthin to mice in order to examine its health benefits and potential effects on the gut biome, as well as inflammatory markers. They concluded that:

“….studies suggest that astaxanthin has a profound effect on the gut microbiota and attenuates local and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation.”

In the 2022 study “Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Astaxanthin on Gastrointestinal Diseases,” researchers determined that astaxanthin “…directly neutralizes ROS (reactive oxygen species) and lipid peroxyl radicals, enhances the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, and suppresses pro-inflammatory transcription factors and cytokines.”

They went on to say that astaxanthin:

“…has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth and metastasis via modulating cell-proliferation related pathways, apoptosis, and autophagy.”

As the research suggests, Astaxanthin’s antioxidant content can be helpful in cases of gastrointestinal issues, as well as aiding in reducing inflammation of various types.

Astragalus Root

Astragalus Root is included in ProDog’s Protect and Repel supplements

A powerful herb and adaptogen, Astragalus Root aids in boosting the immune system and relieving allergy symptoms. As an adaptogen, it promotes natural resistance to stress, disease, and other disturbances, encouraging the body to normalise and balance itself.

Astragalus Root has been utilised in Traditional Chinese Medicine for over 2,000 years, and is considered a fundamental herb for maintaining vitality, or qi. In TCM it is relied upon for strengthening immunity, as it is in ProDog’s Protect and Repel supplements.

The evidence:

Multiple studies have researched the gut support qualities of Astragalus, helping to shed some light on what makes it a beneficial addition to digestive health supplements.

In the 2013 Innovative Veterinary Care journal article “Immunotonic Herbs,” multiple studies are cited pertaining to the benefits of Astragalus Root on the immune system. Here are some of their findings:

“…astragalus seems to improve the immune response.”
“In vitro, studies indicate that the polysaccharides of astragalus appear to bind and activate B cells and macrophages…”
“Astragalus potentiates the effects of interferon, increases antibody levels of IgA and IgG in nasal secretions, and increases interleukin-2 levels.”
“Astragalus contains astralagans, polysaccharide constituents that stimulate white blood cell production, T-cells, killer cells and antibodies in a fashion that helps maintain and restore the immune system.”

Barley Grass

Barley Grass is included in ProDog’s Shine supplement

A member of the grass family, Barley Grass is created when young shoots are harvested before the stem can fully develop. This plant is rich in nutrients, such as various vitamins, minerals, protein, amino acids, and both soluble and insoluble dietary fibre. Its high vitamin E and B vitamin content are excellent for supporting coat health, which is one reason it’s included in ProDog’s Shine supplement.

Barley Grass also contains high levels of chlorophyll, which is very similar to haemoglobin; the protein in the blood that carries oxygen to the body’s tissues. It also includes other nutrients such as superoxide dismutase, lutonarin, and saponarin, adding even more depth to its nutritional value. Its natural cleansing properties contribute to optimal skin and coat health, and its rich nutrient profile makes Barley Grass one of the most beneficial foods for canine health.

The evidence:

The positive aspects of Barley Grass have been studied by various researchers in their attempts to understand its health-promoting properties. Here are some interesting findings:

A 2015 study on the benefits of Barley Grass found promising evidence to back up their research:

“…the only vegetation on the earth that can supply sole nutritional support from birth to old age.”
“…contains a wide spectrum of vitamins, minerals, as well as eight amino acids that we must get from our diets.”
“It has been argued that BG (Barley Grass) helps blood flow, digestion, and general detoxification of the body.”

A 2018 study on the therapeutic role of ingredients in Barley Grass also found:

“Daily consumption of Barley Grass powder promotes sleep; regulates blood sugar and pressure; enhances immunity and liver function; detoxifies acne skin; improves gastrointestinal function; prevents constipation; has anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects; alleviates atopic dermatitis; loses weight and hypolipidemic…”

Black Cumin Seed

Black Cumin Seed is included in ProDog’s Repel and Protect Supplements

Black Cumin Seed is well known for its powerful healing properties. This is largely due to the fact that it contains high levels of thymoquinone; a naturally-occurring compound that is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent.

Black Cumin Seed is also a natural anti-parasitic, making it a perfect addition to ProDog’s Repel and Protect supplements. Capable of providing a natural boost to the immunity of both dogs and humans, this nutrient-dense seed makes a great allergy supplement as well.

The evidence:

In a 2022 study, researchers tested the efficacy of Black Cumin Seed on rats with allergic rhinitis. Their findings showed that the group treated with Nigella sativa (Black Cumin Seed) scratched their noses less frequently, and their inflammation levels were significantly lower than other groups.

In a 2013 study, researchers investigated the therapeutic properties of Black Cumin Seed, including its effects on parasites. They reported:

“Results of in vitro testing of N. sativa (Black Cumin) seeds against Schistosoma mansoni, miracidia, cercariae, and adult worms indicate its strong biocidal effects against all stages of the parasite and an inhibitory effect on egg-laying of adult female worms.”

They also stated:

“…using N. sativa seeds could in turn render the parasite vulnerable to damage by the host and may play a role in the anti-schistosomal potency…”

The findings of this research suggest how helpful Black Cumin Seed can be in relieving allergic reactions, reducing inflammation, and minimising the risks of parasite infestations.

Boswellia

Boswellia is included in ProDog’s Flexx supplement

Boswellia, otherwise known as Frankincense, is a resin from the bark of the Boswellia serrata tree. It’s most commonly known for its powerful anti-inflammatory properties thanks to the phytochemicals it contains. These stop the production of leukotrienes, or pro-inflammatory agents, within the body.

Boswellia is commonly used for treating pain and inflammation, specifically around the joints; such as in cases of various arthritic conditions. This effect is even more potent when combined with turmeric, which is another ingredient included in ProDog’s Flexx supplement.

The evidence:

Multiple studies have researched the anti-inflammatory, pain-reducing properties of Boswellia, helping to shed some light on what makes it a popular addition to joint health supplements.

In the 2004 study “Dietary support with Boswellia resin in canine inflammatory joint and spinal disease,”a group of Swiss veterinarians used a supplement containing Boswellia as an experimental treatment for 24 dogs with various spinal and joint conditions.

Their findings included a 71% improvement in just the first two weeks, and a significant reduction or resolution of symptoms after the six-week period ended. As a result, they recommended that Boswellia be utilised in supplement development as a potential treatment for canine osteoarthritic disease.

Brewers Yeast

Brewers Yeast is included in ProDog’s Shine supplement

Brewers Yeast is rich in B vitamins such as biotin, thiamine, and riboflavin, among others. Its rich vitamin content aids in supporting skin health, reducing excess shedding, and restoring shine to dogs’ coats.

Regular supplementation with Brewers Yeast in dogs’ diets can resolve itchiness and dryness, while promoting a shiny, lustrous coat. Brewers Yeast is high in purines, however, so we don’t recommend it for Dalmatians or other dogs that are prone to forming urate stones.

The evidence:

Research into the efficacy of Brewers Yeast suggests the potential for various health benefits, including healthier skin and coat in dogs:

In 2022, researchers conducted a study on the effectiveness of Brewers Yeast regarding immune cells and oxidative stress markers in dogs. They determined:

‘…SCFP (Brewers Yeast) positively impacts indicators of skin and coat health of dogs, modulates immune responses, and enhances some antioxidant defence markers.”

Bromelain

Bromelain is included in ProDog’s Protect and Digest supplements

Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme that naturally occurs in pineapple. Its core purpose is to break down protein, making it easier to digest and thus reducing the risk of allergic reactions occurring.

Bromelain also aids in reducing pain and swelling, specifically within the mucous membranes of the nose and lungs. This promotes resolution of allergy symptoms in the respiratory system. Bromelain can be even more effective when combined with Quercetin, which is included in ProDogs Protect.

The evidence:

In a 2017 study, researchers utilised Bromelain in an attempt to reduce intestinal inflammation in rats. Their findings were:

“Colitis symptoms, including infiltration of inflammatory cells, cytokine profiles, epithelial cell apoptosis, and epithelial tight junction barrier dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by PFB (Bromelain).”

In 2021, a comprehensive study was performed on the numerous health benefits of Bromelain. Researchers discussed its various uses within healthcare and how it contributes to the resolution of multiple inflammatory-based health conditions, including several types of cancer.

Another study from 2013 also highlighted the anti-inflammatory and allergy-reducing effects of Bromelain. They found:

“sBr (Bromelain) was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD (allergic airway disease) upon antigen challenge.”

In summary, Bromelain has been highlighted throughout various research studies for its potential to reduce pain and swelling, minimise allergic reactions, and relieve inflammatory-based health concerns.

Chamomile

Chamomile is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Chamomile is a widely known herb and has been utilised for centuries for its soothing, calming properties. It can be especially helpful for digestive symptoms, such as indigestion, vomiting, acid reflux, and other types of stomach upset.

Acting as a nervine, this nourishing herb helps calms the nervous system which is especially helpful for the digestion of anxious or reactive dogs.

Created through the process of drying Chamomile flowers, Chamomile tea is a commonly used remedy for alleviating the above symptoms. It also aids in calming and soothing the digestive tract, particularly when inflammation is present.

The evidence:

This research summarises the digestive health benefits of Chamomile, highlighting why it has been used for centuries as a calming, soothing digestive aid:

In a 2020 study on the healing properties of Chamomile, researchers detail its various benefits as a therapeutic, health-promoting agent. They reported:

“Chamomile is used traditionally for numerous gastrointestinal conditions, including digestive disorders, “spasm” or colic, upset stomach, flatulence (gas), ulcers and gastrointestinal irritation. Chamomile is especially helpful in dispelling gas, soothing the stomach, and relaxing the muscles that move food through the intestines.”

They went on to say:

“Studies in preclinical models suggest that Chamomile inhibits Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can contribute to stomach ulcers. Chamomile is believed to be helpful in reducing smooth muscle spasms associated with various gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders.”

Another study, published in 2014, details the anti-diarrhoeal and antioxidant activities of Chamomile. They found:

“…Chamomile extract had potent antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties in rats conforming their use in traditional medicine.”

Chia Seed

Chia Seed is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Chia Seed, also known as Salvia Hispanica, is packed with nutrients. Chock full of healthy fats, plant-based protein, and minerals such as manganese, magnesium, and selenium, the tiny Chia Seed is super nutritious, and a great addition to ProDog’s Digest supplement.

The key nutrient in Chia Seeds, however, is their high fibre content. Most of this is soluble fibre, which means it’s more easily digested and assimilated by the body. This fibre is utilised to bulk the stools and express anal glands naturally, as well as to produce short-chain fatty acids through the fermentation process; a key function for controlling pathogenic bacteria.

The evidence:

In a 2018 study, researchers observed the effects of long-term Chia Seed intake in rats, specifically in the areas of bone density, liver morphology, and intestinal morphology. They found:

“…the Chia Seed contains soluble fibre, which may have improved the time of food digestion and the absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells. The physical and chemical characteristics of soluble fibre may alter the absorption of food nutrients, such as fermentation, bulking and binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity, and solubility.”

Another 2018 study discusses the positive impact of soluble fibre, which is found in abundance in Chia Seeds. It reported:

“Dietary fibre and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters.”

As the research suggests, Chia Seeds are packed with essential nutrients that contribute towards digestive and overall health, particularly considering their high soluble fibre content.

Chlorella

Chlorella is included in ProDog’s Flexx, Boost, Digest, and Revive supplements

Chlorella is a single-celled species of freshwater algae that has become famous for its health-promoting properties, with the most recent discoveries being in the field of canine health. It’s known to support various aspects of health in dogs, such as natural detoxification, cellular repair and regeneration, and overall vitality.

Chlorella is rich in nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and nucleic acids, which are the agents behind its powerful detoxification properties. It’s also a prebiotic and high in fibre, which adds to its digestive health supporting capabilities, and can aid in improving the efficacy of probiotics as well.

The evidence:

Numerous studies have been performed to evaluate Chlorella’s properties as a natural detoxification agent, as well as a helpful promoter of antioxidant gene expression.

Researchers in a 2001 study aimed to determine the detoxification effects of Chlorella on the gastrointestinal absorption of various environmental pollutants. They found that the absorption of toxins was significantly less when dietary Chlorella had been administered, proving that Chlorophyll is a powerful toxin binder and detoxifying agent.

In a 2019 study, researchers tested the effects of Chlorella on performance, oxidative stress, and antioxidant gene expression in a group of rabbits. They concluded:

“..supplementation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris improved performances of rabbits through attenuation of oxidative stress, enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities as well as up-regulation of primary antioxidant genes.”

Chondroitin

Chondroitin is included in ProDog’s Flexx supplement and occurs naturally in Bone Broth

Chondroitin is a naturally-occurring compound in mammalian connective tissue. It’s the major glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage and helps to restore joint integrity, as well as repairing damaged cartilage and improving shock absorption.

Chondroitin is naturally found in bone broths, and is often paired with Glucosamine in joint health supplements for increased effectiveness. Joint health issues are often helped through Chondroitin supplementation, which is why we include it in our Flexx nutritional supplement.

The evidence:

A 2017 study aimed to determine the efficacy of Chondroitin supplementation on a group of osteoarthritic dogs. They reported:

“…the glucosamine and chondroitin arm showed statistically significant improvements in pain, weight-bearing, and overall condition for the first time at 70 days…”

As highlighted in this research, Chondroitin possesses excellent capabilities for relieving pain and inflammation, particularly pertaining to joint health and mobility.

Collagen

Collagen is included in ProDog’s Flexx, Muscle Plus, Perform, and Shine supplements

Collagen is a naturally-occurring structural protein found in the skin, connective tissues, and joints. It’s known as the “glue” that holds the body together, and is essential to joint and tendon health. It’s also crucial for skin health, helping to maintain its strength and uphold its integrity.

Supplemental Collagen enhances skin and coat health in dogs, helping the skin to remain supple and the coat lustrous and shiny. The largest portion of a dog’s skin is composed of collagen, so it’s an important ingredient, to say the least.

The evidence:

Collagen is regularly studied for its potential in supporting skin, joint, and tendon health.

In 2021, a study was conducted to review and assess the health benefits of Collagen, including its effects on skin regeneration, bone defects, sarcopenia, wound healing, gastroesophageal reflux, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Their findings reported that Collagen-based medication was helpful for treating comorbid diseases, as well as preventing complications during treatment.

A 2020 study investigated the beneficial effects of collagen supplementation in the realm of skin care. They concluded that:

“…daily consumption of hydrolyzed collagen in different doses, from different sources can bring many benefits to the human body from relieving joint pain to improving skin
Health.”

Cranberry Extract

Cranberry Extract is included in ProDog’s Boost supplement

Cranberries are members of the Vaccinium family, and are related to Blueberries. These red-coloured berries are nutritional powerhouses, boasting one of the highest antioxidant levels of all the berry varieties. They’re also packed with bioactive compounds, vitamin C, Quercetin, and D Mannose, which makes them an excellent choice for promoting urinary health.

Cranberry extract also contains proanthocyanidins, which can help prevent bacteria from adhering to the urinary tract, thus minimising the risks of acquiring urinary tract infections (UTIs). In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties of Cranberry Extract may aid in relieving the discomfort that often accompanies canine urinary tract issues.

The evidence:

A study published in 2013 on the beneficial effects of Cranberry Extract on canine urinary health reported:

“Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E Coli adherence MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.”

In a 2019 study, a randomised, controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of a Cranberry Extract containing a high amount of certain proanthocyanidins. They determined:

“A dose of 112 mg Oximacro (Cranberry Extract) containing 36 mg PACs-A (bioactive proanthocyanidins type A) was found to be effective in preventing UTIs when used twice per day for 7 days.”

This research explains the natural capabilities of Cranberry Extract, particularly in the area of urinary health, suggesting that it can be a helpful addition to the canine diet.

Digestive Enzymes

Digestive Enzymes are included in ProDog’s Digest and Protect supplements

Digestive Enzymes are naturally produced within the canine body. As food makes its way through the small intestine, the pancreas releases these enzymes to break down its various components, making it possible for nutrients to be absorbed, assimilated, and digested.

Certain dogs benefit from additional Digestive Enzymes to help this process along, such as older dogs and those with various digestive health issues, pancreatic health issues, allergies, food intolerances, or weight maintenance issues. Supplemental Digestive Enzymes allow these dogs to better absorb the nutrients in their food, which contributes to improved digestive health, minimises the risks of chronic health issues, and promotes stronger immune function.

The evidence:

The positive effects of Digestive Enzymes on nutrient digestibility have been documented by various researchers. Here are some of their findings:

In her 2013 Innovative Veterinary Care article titled “Digestive Enzymes,” Jean Hofve, DVM states:

“Recent research shows that in humans with gastrointestinal disease, but more importantly, even in normal individuals, supplementation with digestive enzymes substantially increased digestion in the lumen of the small intestine, and improved the bioavailability of proteins and carbohydrates. Especially in view of the highly processed diet that most of our pets are eating, this implies that most healthy adult dogs and cats can benefit from a digestive enzyme supplement. Digestive enzymes help pets digest and assimilate their food better — any food.”

In a 2018 study, researchers aimed to determine the impact of a Digestive Enzyme supplement on the absorption of nutrients in dog food. They found increased levels of essential amino acids, total antioxidant capacity, digestible energy, and protein digestibility, as well as reduced sugar release within half an hour of feeding the Digestive Enzyme supplement. They concluded:

“…supplementation of enzyme blend in canine food is an effective strategy to enhance the food digestibility and nutrient availability for absorption.”

Dimethyl Glycine (DMG)

Dimethyl Glycine is included in ProDog’s Revive supplement

Dimethyl Glycine (DMG) is a n-methylated derivative of glycine; an essential amino acid. Glycine’s job is to create protein, and is largely responsible for dogs’ cellular growth, meanwhile as a powerful antioxidant DMG also assists with cellular health.

Dimethyl Glycine can also be helpful in reducing lactic acid build up, which can occur after dogs participate in intense or prolonged exercise, causing pain or stiffness (or both). ProDog’s Revive supplement includes Dimethyl Glycine for this very reason: it contributes towards muscle recovery and cellular health.

The evidence:

In a research study from 1982, the performance of two groups of racing Greyhounds were evaluated, with one group being given a Dimethyl Glycine supplement. The supplement group showed increased levels of performance, mainly relating to their ability to endure exercise more favourably.

In a 2000 study, findings indicated that in the context of athletic performance, Dimethyl Glycine contributed to enhanced endurance, improved oxygen utilisation, reduced lactic acid build up, and improved muscle recovery, amongst multiple other potential health benefits.

As the findings of this research suggest, Dimethyl Glycine can contribute towards healthier muscles, better recovery, and improved exercise endurance when given as a nutritional supplement.

Egg Powder

Egg Powder is included in ProDog’s Revive supplement

Eggs are highly nutritious for dogs. Aside from being a complete protein source that contains all 9 essential amino acids, they’re also the best natural sources of vitamin D which is essential for immune health, and contain multiple other nutrients such as iron, vitamin A, choline, vitamin B12, riboflavin, zinc, and calcium.

This nutrient combination provides various health benefits for dogs, including aiding in muscle recovery, which is why Egg Powder is a perfect fit for the nutrient blend that makes up our Revive supplement.

The evidence:

Research into the potential health benefits of eggs suggests that they are a healthy choice to include in the canine diet.

A research study from 2016 details several points regarding the biologically active substances and valuable health benefits of eggs, including cell growth, inhibiting inflammatory processes, cardiovascular health and digestive health, as well as connective tissue health.

Fenugreek

Fenugreek is included in ProDog’s Repel supplement

Fenugreek is a herb, and is most closely compared to clover. It’s full of health-promoting nutrients, such as vitamins A, B1, B2, and C, choline, linoleic acid, and fibre. The key compound in Fenugreek, however, is its high antioxidant content. This allows it to assist the skin’s natural defences, reducing the risk of bacterial infections and parasite infestations.

Fenugreek is also known for its ability to stimulate the appetites of dogs, as they find its smell quite appealing. However, parasites don’t like it at all, which is what makes it the perfect addition to proDog’s Repel supplement.

The evidence:

The effectiveness of Fenugreek as a parasite repellent is becoming a popular topic of research amongst scientists.

A 2019 study tested the effects of Fenugreek as an amebicidal (amoeba-killing) agent, experimenting with various dosage strengths. Their findings were:

“This study revealed that T. foenum-graecum (fenugreek) prevented proliferation of the parasite at certain times.”

Another study from 2013 determined that Fenugreek was an effective agent in worm elimination. They found:

“…the crude aqueous extract significantly paralysed and also caused death of worm in short time, as compared to methanolic extract. In conclusion, the traditional use of leaves of the plant Trigonella Foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) as helmintholytic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for activity.”

Garlic

Garlic is included in ProDog’s Repel supplement

Contrary to the common belief that Garlic is toxic to dogs, it actually contains multiple health-promoting properties and is quite safe when given in the right dosage. It’s long been utilised as a natural method for flea and tick prevention, as they dislike its sulphuric scent, which excretes through dogs’ skin.

Aside from its anti-parasitic benefits, Garlic also aids in cardiovascular health, helps to regulate blood sugar, boosts immunity, and can also protect liver health. This nutrient-dense bulbous plant is full of surprises, and a great addition to our Repel supplement.

The evidence:

The various health benefits of Garlic are widely studied amongst the scientific community, including its anti-parasitic properties. Here are some interesting findings:

A 2019 study revealed that faecal egg counts were decreased whilst overall health improved when feeding a garlic powder supplement to forty lambs with gastrointestinal nematode infections. They reported:

“The key finding of this study was that feeding garlic powder increased growth performance of lambs infected with GINs by decreasing fecal egg counts and improving feed digestion, rumen fermentation, and the health status of lambs.”

In a 1998 trial, 100 Swedish Marines participated to determine the effectiveness of Garlic as a tick repellent. Of the Marines tested, the group that consumed Garlic daily received significantly less tick bites than the placebo group over an 8-week period.

Ginseng

Ginseng is included in ProDog’s Perform supplement

Ginseng is an adaptogenic herb, and has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Its adaptive nature promotes the body’s natural abilities to adapt to stress, as well as promoting overall well being.

The high antioxidant content in Ginseng helps with recovery from fatigue, illness, and stress, whilst its anti-inflammatory properties contribute towards cholesterol and blood sugar regulation, as well as maintaining a healthy weight.

The evidence:

A 2020 study tested the effectiveness of black ginseng on the health of a group of Beagles. They found:

“Differences over the period of feeding black ginseng were also evident in multivariate statistical analysis, and statistical analyses of metabolite profiles also identified changes in metabolites that could indicate health improvement such as increased immunity and increased energy metabolism. The biological effects of black ginseng were confirmed through metabolomics analysis, and furthermore, it was confirmed that metabolomics can be applied to the pet healthcare industry.”

In the 2013 study “Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice,” it was observed that:

“HF-induced hyperlipidemia, fat accumulation in the liver, and white adipose tissue were reduced after BG-EE (Black Ginseng) supplementation.”

They went on to say:

“These results suggest that BG-EE (Black Ginseng) may be useful to ameliorate HF-induced obesity through the strong inhibition of fat digestion.”

As observed in this research, Ginseng is a healthy ingredient that shows great potential for the purposes stated above, which is why it’s aptly placed in ProDog’s Perform supplement.

Glucosamine

Glucosamine is included in ProDog’s Flexx and Muscle Plus supplements

Glucosamine is a naturally-occurring compound found within cartilage, which acts as a cushion to absorb impact on the joints. For dogs with joint health concerns, supplemental Glucosamine has been found to be beneficial, and is often included in veterinary healthcare plans for managing joint health.

Studies have shown that Glucosamine can help alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis in dogs, as well as improving the overall function of the joints. Glucosamine is also believed to stimulate the production of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage. This supports joint structure and function, which may improve joint health issues over time.

The evidence:

There is a growing amount of evidence in the scientific community suggesting the positive impact that Glucosamine has on joint health.

In 2007, a research study published in The Veterinary Journal found that a Glucosamine/Chondroitin supplement improved the joint health of osteoarthritic dogs. They reported:

“Dogs treated with Glu/CS (Glucosamine and Chondroitin) showed statistically significant improvement in scores for pain, weight-bearing and severity of the condition by day 70.”

They also stated:

“The results show that Glu/CS (Glucosamine and Chondroitin) has a positive clinical effect on dogs with osteoarthritis.”

In the 2012 study “Role of glucosamine in the treatment for osteoarthritis,” researchers reported the effectiveness of Glucosamine on the symptoms and condition of osteoarthritis patients:

“There is now a large, convergent body of evidence that glucosamine sulfate, given at a daily oral dose of 1,500 mg, is able to significantly reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the lower limbs.”

They also found:

“This effect also translated into a 50% reduction in the incidence of osteoarthritis-related surgery of the lower limbs during a 5-year period following the withdrawal of the treatment.”

Green Lipped Mussel

Green Lipped Mussel is included in ProDog’s Flexx and Boost supplements

Green Lipped Mussels are a species of Mussel native to the coast of New Zealand. They’re rich in nutrients such as Omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids, various vitamins, antioxidants, selenium, zinc, and health-promoting enzymes. They offer various benefits for dogs, including improved cardiovascular health, joint function, and immunity.

In addition, Green Lipped Mussels aid in calming inflammation, promoting cartilage repair, and may reduce symptoms of arthritis. Their dense nutrient content also contributes to healthy skin and coat, along with overall well being.

The evidence:

In a 2007 study, a double-blinded, double-controlled, randomised trial was conducted to determine the impact of Green Lipped Mussels on canine osteoarthritis. They found:

“…there were more dogs in the GLM (Green Lipped Mussels) group than in the placebo group that improved, according to veterinary-assessed mobility, owner-evaluated chronic pain index and pain VAS (visual analogue scales).”

They also stated:

“As no side-effects were detected, GLM (Green Lipped Mussels) may be beneficial in dogs e.g. when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cannot be used.”

In another study from 2013, 23 dogs were fed a control diet for 30 days, followed by a Green Lipped Mussel diet for 60 days. Here are their observations:

“From D0 (day 0) to D30 (day 30), PVF (peak vertical force) did not significantly change, which suggests that the GLM (Green Lipped Mussels) diet had a beneficial effect on gait function. Moreover, PVF (peak vertical force), CSOM (client-specific outcome measure), and MA (motor activity) improved significantly from D0 (day 0) to D90 (day 90).”

As the research suggests, Green Lipped Mussels show great potential for the improvement of osteoarthritis symptoms in dogs.

Green Tea

Green Tea is included in ProDog’s Revive supplement

Green Tea is packed with antioxidants, as well as a wide variety of vitamins and minerals. It contains antioxidant polyphenols called catechins that offer various medicinal benefits, such as improved immunity, cognitive health support, and reduced inflammation.

Though Green Tea is typically caffeinated, the variety included in our Revive supplement contains no caffeine, making it safe and healthy for dogs. The health-promoting properties in Green Tea make it a great addition to Revive, aiding in its ability to promote healthy recovery, stronger immunity, and improved overall health.

The evidence:

There are various research studies investigating the multiple health benefits that Green Tea offers, including its anti-inflammatory effects.

In 2016, a study was published on the anti-inflammatory properties of Green Tea. Their observations included:

“Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes.”

The 2020 study “Beneficial Properties of Green Tea Catechins” investigated the various health benefits of Green Tea catechins, including potential anti-cancer properties. They reported:

“All in all, polyphenols, and especially the main catechin of green tea, EGCG, brings promising results in the prevention of breast, lung, prostate, stomach, and pancreatic cancers.”

Hemp Protein

Hemp Protein is included in ProDog’s Boost, Flexx, Muscle Plus, Perform, Revive, and Shine supplements

Hemp Protein comes from the Hemp plant, and provides a complete protein source for dogs. Aside from containing all 9 essential amino acids required in the canine diet, Hemp Protein also boasts high levels of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, as well as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. This combination of nutrients offers support in maintaining healthy skin and coat, balanced immunity, and reduced inflammation, to name a few.

Hemp Protein is easily digestible for most dogs, and can be helpful for those with sensitive stomachs or digestive health issues. It’s also hypoallergenic, making it a great option for dogs prone to allergies or food sensitivities. In addition, Hemp is a sustainable crop that requires minimal water and pesticides to grow, making it environmentally friendly as well as a healthy option for dogs’ diets.

The evidence:

A comprehensive review in 2020 detailed the various potential benefits of Hemp Protein. They observed:

“Particularly, bioactive peptides derived from hemp proteins have been proven to be strong antioxidants…”

And also stated:

“…the antioxidant potential of hemp proteins may provide both functional food benefits and phytotherapy efficacy to human health.”

Research into Hemp Protein suggests that it holds the potential for contributing towards various areas of canine health, which makes it a valuable addition to several ProDog supplements.

Holy Basil

Holy Basil is included in ProDog’s Repel supplement

Whilst related to the Basil plant commonly used in cooking, Holy Basil, also known as Tulsi, is not quite the same. It’s an adaptogenic herb and is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for everything from stress relief to eye health issues to ringworm infections.

Holy Basil is a great addition to ProDog’s Repel supplement: its antibacterial, antiviral, and stress-adaptive properties create an environment that parasites can’t thrive in, whilst promoting the potential for overall health within the body.

The evidence:

In a 2023 report, goat keepers in three Congo territories were studied to determine which plants they utilised as antiparasitics for their trips (herds). It was determined that amongst the various plants used, Holy Basil was popular for its ability to inhibit parasite infestations by preventing the eggs from hatching.

Another study published in 2014 highlights the many ways Holy Basil is utilised in Ayurvedic medicine, including its antiparasitic properties in animal rearing. It states:

“Tulsi (Holy Basil) has also been shown to be active against many animal pathogens, and this has led to tulsi being used in animal rearing to reduce infections in cows, poultry, goats, fish, and silkworms. Tulsi’s activity against water-borne and food-borne pathogens (parasites) further suggests that it can be used in the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials as well as for water purification and hand sanitizer. ”

As the research suggests, Holy Basil carries encouraging potential for aiding in the prevention/resolution of parasite infections, along with offering various other potential health benefits.

Irish Sea Moss

Irish Sea Moss is included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Irish Sea Moss is a red, edible species of seaweed, or algae. It’s rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and iodine, which makes it a popular option for supporting thyroid function. It also aids in the absorption of heavy metals, helping to remove them from your dog’s body. Skin issues in dogs, especially those involving yeast overgrowth, often coincide with higher levels of heavy metals within the body/blood.

Irish Sea Moss also contains bioactive compounds that help to modulate the immune response, aiding its ability to regulate itself and potentially reducing the reactions seen in allergies. In fact, regular consumption of Irish Sea Moss may help to minimise the severity and/or frequency of allergy symptoms.

Research has shown that Irish Sea Moss can help to improve cell growth and metabolism, as well as promoting the release of amino acids that support protein and collagen synthesis, which are essential for healthy skin and coat in dogs.

The evidence:

There is a growing amount of evidence that suggests various seaweed species including Irish Sea Moss hold the potential for providing various health benefits. Here are some interesting findings:

A 2011 study aimed to determine the possible health benefits of ingesting seaweed. They found that the marine environment where seaweed is grown has much to do with its rich nutrient profile; compared to land-grown plants it was found to be especially nutrient-dense and potentially capable of providing various health benefits.

In a 2015 study, the prebiotic effects of red seaweed were evaluated with regard to its potential for improving the gut health of rats. They reported:

“The results suggest multiple prebiotic effects, such as influencing the composition of gut microbial communities, improvement of gut health and immune modulation in rats supplemented with cultivated C. crispus (red seaweed).”

Yet another study from 2016 aimed to reveal the potential impact that polyphenols (a key compound of Irish Sea Moss) had on the occurrence of oxidative stress. It states:

“Clinical evidence suggests that oxidative stress and inflammation linked to overproduction of ROS (reactive oxygen species) are likely to represent an important component for the development of several diseases including inflammation-associated chronic diseases. Numerous studies performed with animal and cell models suggest that polyphenol dietary intake may be beneficial as adjuvant treatment for the prevention and treatment of such diseases.”

Lemon Balm Leaf

Lemon Balm Leaf is included in ProDog’s Repel supplement

Lemon Balm is a herb from the mint family. Its leaves have a subtle lemon scent, and are the main part of the plant utilised for medicinal purposes. Lemon Balm has been a staple of Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, and is prescribed for conditions such as anxiety/stress, insomnia, indigestion, and even dementia.

Lemon Balm leaf is packed with high amounts of antioxidants, as well as phytochemicals, vitamin C, and vitamin B1. Its antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, and antiparasitic properties make it a great addition to ProDog’s Repel supplement.

The evidence:

In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study from 2023, 10 indoor/outdoor cats with naturally-occurring flea infestations were fed a supplement which included Lemon Balm Leaf as an ingredient. The flea population steadily declined amongst the supplement group over a five month period, whilst no changes were reported in the placebo group.

In another study published in 2016, researchers investigated Lemon Balm Leaf in two contexts: its traditional uses in plant medicine, and its antioxidant properties. They reported:

“Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L (Lemon Balm) possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable.”

As research suggests, Lemon Balm Leaf contains multiple nutrients that offer the potential for increased health benefits of various types, including the prevention of parasites.

L-Glutamine

L-Glutamine is included in ProDog’s Digest and Muscle Plus supplements

L-Glutamine is an amino acid, and one of the most abundant within the body. Though not amongst the 9 essential amino acids, it still holds importance in canine health. This is due to it being a preferred food substance for the cells that make up the gut wall, which makes it helpful in repairing any holes; thus potentially helping to reverse/prevent leaky gut issues.

L-Glutamine is also helpful in supporting the mucosal lining of the gut, and contributes towards balancing the pH levels that aid in efficient digestion. It’s a great addition to ProDog’s Digest and Muscle Plus supplements, thanks to its immune and digestive supporting properties.

The evidence:

Research into the benefits of L-Glutamine continues to evolve with researchers becoming more and more aware of its importance in the healthcare field, specifically relating to gut health.

In the 2012 research article “Role of Glutamine in Protection of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions,” the authors focused their attention on the role of L-Glutamine with regards to its importance in maintaining the gut barrier. They wrote:

“L-Glutamine the most abundant amino acid in blood plays a vital role in the maintenance of mucosal integrity. Glutamine is traditionally termed as a nonessential amino acid, is now considered a “conditionally essential” amino acid.”

They went on to say:

“In the small bowel mucosa, glutamine is an unique nutrient providing fuel for metabolism, regulating cell proliferation, repair and maintaining the gut barrier functions.”

Liquorice Root

Liquorice Root is included in ProDog’s Protect and Digest supplements

Liquorice Root, or Glycyrrhiza gabra, is a legume that belongs to the pea family. It’s a versatile medicinal plant containing over 300 chemical compounds; the most potent being its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties.

Liquorice Root’s medicinal uses include supporting the resolution of digestive health issues, as well as various inflammatory health conditions. Its soothing, calming properties help to protect the mucosal lining of the gut and can potentially aid in healing leaky gut, which is the most common cause of allergies as well as many digestive health issues.

The evidence:

A study performed in 2003 aimed to determine whether a gel made from Liquorice Root might help ease symptoms of atopic dermatitis. They tested two formulations of a liquorice-based gel. They found:

“Two percent licorice topical gel was more effective than 1% in reducing the scores for erythema, oedema and itching over two weeks. The results showed that licorice extract could be considered as an effective agent for treatment of atopic dermatitis.”

Meanwhile, a 2023 study investigating the impact of liquorice on gastric ulcers, reported numerous benefits of this plant based ingredient, including: inhibiting inflammation, promoting mucosal barrier repair and angiogenesis, regulating gut microbiota and SCFA metabolism. More importantly, the research suggests liquorice to be helpful in promoting epithelial proliferation that provides protective and regenerative effect on gastric mucosa.

Research into the health benefits of Liquorice Root continues to evolve. Having been used as a medicinal plant for various ailments over centuries, its nutrient-dense content is being studied for its potential to aid in the improvement of multiple health conditions.

Marshmallow Root

Marshmallow Root is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Marshmallow Root is a perennial herb and a member of the mallow plant family. It’s used as an herbal remedy for digestive, skin, and respiratory conditions, and has been known for its medicinal properties for centuries. The main contributor of Marshmallow Root is its mucilage; a thick, gelatinous substance that occurs naturally within the plant.

Mucilage is a soothing, protective substance, with the potential to aid in digestive issues through coating the gut as it’s ingested. This helps to soothe irritated and inflamed tissue, which allows it to contribute towards the healing of various digestive health issues such as IBD, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting.

The evidence:

Whilst Marshmallow Root has been utilised as a medicinal plant for some time, research into its potential benefits is still expanding. However, these studies suggest some positive findings in relation to the gut health benefits of Marshmallow Root:

A 2010 study researched the properties of the extracts of Marshmallow Root regarding their influence on the cell physiology of epithelial cells. They reported:

“Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis (Marshmallow Root) are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration.”

In a 2023 study involving multiple plants used in traditional Serbian medicine, Marshmallow Root was highlighted for its usefulness in treating gastrointestinal disorders. It states:

“The in vitro experiments on human monocytic cell line THP-1 showed a significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of root extracts of A. officinalis (Marshmallow Root). The investigated preparation showed the ability to ameliorate the migratory capacity of macrophages. These anti-inflammatory effects were comparable to or even better than diclofenac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug).”

Milk Thistle

Milk Thistle is included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Milk Thistle is a flowering plant belonging to the aster family. It’s a powerful antioxidant, and contains a therapeutic compound called silymarin. Silymarin contains anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and immune modulating properties, which contribute to the protection and regeneration of liver tissues.

The liver has multiple roles, one of which being to remove histamine from the body. Histamine is produced to combat allergens, but when a dog’s liver is weakened or diseased due to poor diet, toxin buildup, or regular consumption of medications, their histamine levels can increase.

Milk Thistle can enhance the different phases of detox, supporting the liver to process excess histamine and other toxins more efficiently; thereby helping reduce the symptoms that pets can experience when their detox pathways are not working properly

The evidence:

A 2021 study evaluated the effects of silybin, a component of silymarin, on the liver health of dogs, whilst also investigating its potential impact on nutrient digestibility. They observed that whilst silybin did in fact improve the liver health markers of the dogs tested, there was no interference with nutrient digestibility involved. They noted:

“Liver function indices were consequently improved. Silybin supplementation can thus serve serve as an effective therapeutical tool in dogs with hepatopathies.”

In a 2022 review, various studies were researched and reported on pertaining to the potential health benefits of silymarin, including its liver health-promoting properties. Here are some of their statements:

“Consumption of silymarin has been used in the treatment of liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral and toxic hepatitis, abdominal fat due to chemicals, and alcohol and bile duct inflammation. Therapeutic effects have been shown to be due to silymarin’s properties including: antioxidant, anti lipid peroxidase, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-regulating, liver cell regenerating, calcium-lowering, and iron-trapping.”

They later stated:

“Silymarin protects liver cells from damage due to viruses, chemicals, and natural toxins such as fungal toxins. There are various reports of improved liver function following prescription (administration) of silymarin…”
“Also, it can prevent the peroxidation process involved in liver lesions caused by carbon tetrachloride, ethanol, paracetamol, and other substances that are toxic to the liver.”

As the above research suggests, Milk Thistle shows encouraging potential as a liver health-supporting supplement, which is why it’s a great addition to ProDog’s Protect.

MSM

MSM is included in ProDog’s Flexx supplement

MSM, or methylsulfonylmethane, is an organic, sulphur-containing compound that naturally occurs in humans, animals, and some plants. It’s believed to carry the potential for supplying sulphur for the creation of other natural chemicals, and is well known for its ability to benefit the health of joints.

MSM is a natural analgesic, and can block pain impulses from travelling through nerve fibres. It also helps to stop the inflammatory process from occurring by promoting the production of cortisol; an anti-inflammatory hormone produced by the body. MSM is commonly used for reducing symptoms of osteoarthritis, as well as other joint health conditions.

The evidence:

Research into MSM provides encouraging insights into its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

A 2017 study was performed to determine and document the safety and application of MSM as a dietary supplement. The researchers reported:

“…MSM may indirectly have an inhibitory role on mast cell mediation of inflammation. With the reduction in cytokines and vasodilating agents, flux and recruitment of immune cells to sites of local inflammation are inhibited.”

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is included in ProDog’s Revive supplement

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a natural precursor to glutathione; the body’s most potent naturally-occurring antioxidant. Glutathione is created within the cells of the body, and is an essential component of the methylation (detoxification) process.

NAC is helpful for conditions involving tissue damage or various types of toxicity that are present as a result of oxidative stress. These can occur due to stressful experiences, high intensity exercise, or pregnancy. NAC levels naturally decrease with age, as well as the situations previously mentioned. Supplementation of NAC works to restore these levels, which is why ProDog includes it in our Revive supplement.

The evidence:

A 2023 study was performed to assess the immunomodulatory properties of N-Acetyl Cysteine in both humans and animals. In one example regarding piglets, the authors reported:

“There is increasing evidence that dietary supplementation of NAC may improve the intestinal morphology and function of livestock species, particularly piglets. Indeed, recent studies have found that administration of NAC reduces inflammation, alleviates oxidative stress, improves energy status, and ameliorates intestinal tissue damage in piglets that were immune challenged with bacterial LPS.”

Another study published in 2021 investigated the effects of nutritional management on oxidative stress in pigs. They found:

“…in the lipopolysaccharide model, daily acetylcysteine supplementation also showed significant anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced piglet inflammation oxidative stress.”

These findings suggest that N-Acetyl Cysteine acts as a helpful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, carrying the potential to aid in various health conditions related to oxidative stress.

Neem Leaf

Neem Leaf is included in ProDog’s Repel supplement

Neem, or Azadirachta indica, is a tree in the mahogany family. It’s commonly used in its oil form in Ayurvedic medicine, as well as homoeopathy. Neem Leaf is exactly as it sounds: the leaves of the Neem tree. Neem oil is a common natural pesticide used in gardens everywhere, and Neem Leaf acts in the same way.

The Neem tree carries natural antibodies that protect it from pests, as well as other plant diseases. Neem Leaf possesses antifungal and antiseptic qualities, and can help to deter fleas, ticks, and intestinal parasites in dogs.

The evidence:

In 1998, a group of flea-infested cats and dogs were treated with a Neem solution to determine its efficacy on parasites. The researchers noted:

“Azadirachtin-containing neem seed extract is a powerful insect growth regulator, a feeding deterrent and repellent with low toxicity.”

They also stated:

“Compared with fleas counted on treated dogs just before treatment and untreated infested dogs, 1000-2400 ppm azadirachtin reduced fleas 93-53% for 19 days.”

In another 2001 study, researchers found similar results when evaluating the effect of Neem on fleas within Tanzanian livestock populations:

“Mean population densities of the insects were significantly lower in the treated goats compared to their untreated counterparts. It was concluded that NSKE (neem seed kernels extracts) has potential in controlling livestock fleas…”

As research suggests, the natural antiparasitic properties of the Neem tree hold favourable potential as a natural antiparasitic for various species of animals, including dogs.

Nettle Leaf

Nettle Leaf is included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Nettle, also known as Urtica dioica, is a plant often used in herbal medicine, and is often referred to for its alterative and detoxicant qualities. It carries anti-inflammatory properties that are specifically tied to the inflammation responsible for seasonal allergy symptoms. As mentioned in the popular text Herbs for Pets by Gregory Tilford and Mary Wuff, Nettles’ histamine content may be responsible for its effectiveness, as the plant stimulates the body’s natural allergen defences.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, diagnoses of “wind-damp” are often prescribed Nettle Leaf for allergy symptom relief; specifically for allergic reactions concerning the skin, such as eczema. The positive effects on allergy symptoms is thought to be partly due to the Quercetin content in Nettle Leaf. Quercetin is a flavonoid that is known for inhibiting histamine release, thus reducing allergy symptoms.

The evidence:

Researchers have long been interested in the potential health benefits offered by Nettle Leaf. Here are some encouraging examples:

A study published in 2009 investigated the effects of Nettle Leaf on the histamine cells that relate to allergic rhinitis (the common cold). Researchers found multiple inflammatory pathways were inhibited by the administration of Nettle Leaf, which resulted in less allergic reactions. They reported:

“…bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis.”

In 2022, researchers conducted a comprehensive review of the nutritional and pharmacological effects of Nettle Leaf. In the section titled “Anti-allergic activity,” they reported:

“Stinging nettle has been shown to alleviate a variety of seasonal allergies. In trials, certain stinging nettle extract combinations have been shown to significantly reduce allergic reactions.”

They went on to say:

“In addition to blocking histamine H1 receptors, nettle inhibits tryptase, which lowers mast (histamine-releasing) cell degranulation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines.”

Oat Flour

Oat Flour is included in ProDog’s Muscle Plus supplement

Oats are grains that contain a plethora of nutrients within their seemingly simple structure. Aside from providing a healthy source of soluble fibre in the form of beta glucans, they also boast multiple other health-promoting properties such as protein, magnesium, zinc, and B vitamins.

This combination of nutrients is beneficial for the canine nervous system, and can also promote hormonal balance. Combined with the fact that Oats are low in fat and relatively low on the glycemic index (meaning low in sugars), this helps to restore balance to the body and can help dogs to maintain a healthy weight.

The evidence:

A 2006 study evaluated the effects of beta glucans on the insulin and glucose responses as compared to a resistant starch. It states:

“Acute consumption of barley B-glucan, but not resistant starch, in muffins was effective in reducing glucose and insulin responses in men who were mildly insulin-resistant.”

In a 2015 study, researchers aimed to quantify the effects of Oat beta glucans on cholesterol levels. They found that the levels of LDL, or “bad” cholesterol, were significantly reduced when oat beta glucans were added to the diet. They also noted that HDL, or “good” cholesterol levels, were not affected by the diet change.

As these studies suggest, Oats possess encouraging health-promoting properties and can be a healthy addition to the canine diet.

Ox Bile

Ox Bile is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Ox Bile is a substance derived from the bile of cattle, and is sometimes utilised in veterinary care to help dogs with pancreatic or digestive health issues to process and digest fats. As gallbladder issues can affect this process and therefore prevent the absorption of nutrients, Ox Bile can be helpful in these cases, too.

Ox Bile helps by providing additional bile acids that are required for digestion and nutrient assimilation. This helps to emulsify fats, which are critical in the absorption of various vitamins as well as other nutrients. Ox Bile also aids in controlling bacteria growth, which is helpful in cases of SIBO (small intestine bacterial overgrowth). SIBO is responsible for various bloating and digestive issues in dogs.

The evidence:

Research into the benefits of Ox Bile is continually expanding, with studies yielding some encouraging findings.

A 2011 study evaluated the effect of Ox Bile on digestibility in a group of broiler chickens. Researchers found that the addition of Ox Bile to the chickens’ tallow diet significantly increased the digestibility of the food. They stated:

“The results of this study indicated that dietary desiccated ox bile can be used as a natural non-nutrient additive to improve broiler performance and tallow digestibility in broiler chickens at least by stimulation of morphological maturation of gastrointestinal tract.”

In another study from 2003, researchers aimed to determine the effects of bile acids on intestinal bacteria overgrowth in rats. They found:

“…the administration of conjugated bile acids to ascitic cirrhotic rats increased bile acid secretion, eliminated intestinal bacterial overgrowth, decreased bacterial translocation, decreased endotoxemia, and increased survival.”

Parsley Leaf

Parsley Leaf is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Parsley is a herb that belongs to the Apiaceae family. This small, leafy plant is a nutritional powerhouse despite its weed-like appearance, and is far more than just a garnish. It’s packed with vitamins K, C, and A, as well as high levels of iron and chlorophyll.

Parsley Leaf is a natural detoxifying agent due to its high amounts of chlorophyll. It also aids in digestive health, fresher breath, and possesses diuretic properties which further aid in flushing toxins from the body.

The evidence:

In 2002, researchers published a study on the diuretic effect of Parsley on rats and the mechanism of action involved in its diuretic properties. They found that the rats eliminated a significantly larger volume of urine when given the Parsley extract as compared to drinking plain water.

A 2010 study investigated the antimicrobial effects of Parsley on a certain type of cheese, aiming to make it safer to consume. The researchers reported some interesting findings:

“…this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese.”

As seen in these studies, Parsley Leaf carries encouraging potential as a digestive and diuretic aid thanks to its high nutrient content.

Probiotics

Probiotics are included in ProDog’s Protect and Boost supplements

Probiotic is a blanket term used to describe various species of beneficial bacteria, which are often consumed in supplement form with the intention of improving gut health. For dogs, Probiotics include live enzymes, yeasts, and microorganisms such as the gut-friendly bacteria species bifidobacterium and lactobacillus. As much as 80% of the canine immune system resides within the gut; therefore, Probiotics are an important addition to all dogs’ diets.

Probiotics play a key role in gut health, digestion, immune function, skin health, and the regulation/reduction of inflammation and allergies. As gut bacteria have such a strong influence on the health of the body, it’s crucial to support the gut in order to maintain overall health and reduce the risk of disease. Absence of balance in the gut is inherently unhealthy and can lead to health issues, such as leaky gut.

The evidence:

Probiotics are a popular topic of research within the healthcare field, and their health-promoting potential is becoming more widely known. Here are some encouraging findings:

In a 2004 study, 15 dogs were fed a strain of Probiotic called Lactobacillus acidophilus in an attempt to gauge its effects on intestinal health. Researchers reported that this strain of Probiotic:

“…survive transit through the canine gastrointestinal tract, and populate the colon and are associated with local and systemic changes. This probiotic bacterium may have the potential to enhance intestinal health and improve immune function in dogs.”

A 2015 study also tested a strain of Probiotic, this time to evaluate its effectiveness in treating and preventing canine atopic dermatitis, or an allergic disorder concerning the skin. It states:

“Administration of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei probio-65 for 2 months significantly reduced the disease severity index in experimental dogs diagnosed with CAD (canine atopic dermatitis).”

Psyllium Husk

Psyllium Husk is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Psyllium Husk is the product of a herb called Plantago ovata, which is most commonly grown in India; though it exists globally as well. The seeds of this shrub-like plant are harvested for their husks, which are rich in soluble fibre and contain the bulk of the plant’s cleansing properties. Psyllium Husk is commonly used in laxative products as it gently cleanses the digestive tract, removing toxins and impurities in the process.

Psyllium swells and becomes sticky when it comes into contact with water, which helps it to move waste products through the intestines in a safe manner. Due to its cleansing abilities, Psyllium Husk is a helpful aid in relieving diarrhoea and constipation, and can also help to improve issues concerning the anal glands in dogs.

The evidence:

A 2009 study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psyllium Husk on constipation in dogs. Researchers conducted two experiments: one on dogs without constipation, and the other on constipated dogs. Here are their findings from the first experiment:

“A linear increase of faecal moisture was verified with the addition of psyllium, with no alteration on faecal score or number of defecations per day.”

The second experiment yielded these results:

“Nineteen (of 24) owners reported that their dogs had an easier defecation process during supplementation. Fifteen reported that the animals’ faeces, which were dry or hard at the start, became normal or pasty after psyllium consumption.”

They went on to say:

“The results confirmed a laxative effect of psyllium in dogs, which was already reported in human medicine, supporting the use of this fiber in the clinical management of diseases that cause constipation in dog.”

In a 2019 study, researchers aimed to resolve chronic diarrhoea in a group of police dogs with a Psyllium Husk fibre supplement. They found responses to be “very good” in 50% of the dogs tested, and “good” in 40%. They also reported:

“Psyllium husk can be useful in the management of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in working dogs, which exhibited lower defecation frequency, improved stool consistency, and gained weight. Effects were felt beyond the supplementation period.”

As these studies have highlighted, Psyllium Husk can be a useful addition to the canine diet, and is potentially able to help resolve digestive issues such as diarrhoea and constipation in dogs.

Pumpkin Seeds

Pumpkin Seeds are included in ProDog’s Boost, Digest, Muscle Plus, Perform, and Repel supplements

Pumpkin Seeds are rich in essential nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamins E and K, Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, magnesium, zinc, and iron. They’re an exceptionally nutritious addition to your dog’s diet, contributing to their overall health and wellness in a variety of ways.

The health benefits of Pumpkin Seeds are numerous; including digestive health support, promoting urinary health, and contributing towards healthy skin and coat. Their antioxidant content helps to neutralise free radicals, which supports health throughout the body. They also contain cucurbitacin; an amino acid that paralyses worms and makes it easier for the body to eliminate them, making Pumpkin Seeds a natural deworming agent.

The evidence:

Research into the health benefits of Pumpkin Seeds is continually evolving, particularly involving its anti-parasitic properties. Here are some interesting studies:

A 2019 study was conducted to determine the ability of Pumpkin Seeds to eliminate gastrointestinal nematodes. Researchers concluded that:

“Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative to the currently available chemotherapeutic should be considered as a novel drug candidate in the nearest future.”

Another study published in 2004 also researched the effects of Pumpkin Seeds on parasitic infestations. It stated:

“It was found that the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of water can produce an antihelminthic (worm-destroying) effect.”

Quercetin

Quercetin is included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Quercetin is a flavonoid. Flavonoids are a group of pigments that give colour to various fruits, flowers, and vegetables. These pigments are also antioxidants, and are known for their numerous health-promoting qualities, such as their natural anti-inflammatory and antihistamine properties.

Due to these naturally-occurring traits, Quercetin is often referred to as nature’s antihistamine. Its ability to turn off histamine production results in reduced inflammation and its resulting irritation, itching, and redness.

The evidence:

A 2020 study on Quercetin reviewed its effects on various allergic diseases. Researchers reported that Quercetin:

“…has anti-allergic functions that are known for inhibiting histamine production and pro-inflammatory mediators. Quercetin can regulate the Th1/Th2 (helper cells) stability, and decrease the antigen-specific IgE antibody (immune cell) releasing by B cells. Quercetin has a main role in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory function which makes it proper for the management of different diseases.”

A study from 2016 also reviewed the various ways Quercetin can aid in the body’s natural defence processes. It states:

“Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (immune cell proteins), leukotrienes (inflammatory modulator) creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 (cytokine) production.”

As these studies suggest, Quercetin’ antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihistamine properties make it a helpful addition to the canine diet; particularly for dogs experiencing allergies.

Reishi Mushrooms

Reishi Mushrooms are included in ProDog’s Boost supplement

Reishi is often referred to as “the mushroom of immortality.” It’s a powerful medicinal mushroom, and the benefits it offers can support canine health in various ways, which is why its fruiting body (the part richest in beta-glucans) is included in our Boost supplement.

Reishi Mushrooms are rich in bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, beta-glucans, and triterpenes, which aid in a stronger immune system. They also contain antioxidants to counteract free radical damage, which contributes to overall health and longevity in dogs. Research into the Reishi Mushroom suggests it may also promote liver health, as it can aid in the detoxification process and may reduce oxidative stress on the liver.

The evidence:

Research into the health-promoting effects of Reishi Mushrooms is expanding, along with its popularity amongst natural health enthusiasts.

In the illuminating article “Reishi Mushrooms for Dogs” by Joni Kamlet, RVT, CCRA, the list of health-promoting properties these medicinal mushrooms offer is explained in detail. Here are a few excerpts:

“Overall, Reishi exhibits broad neuroprotective effects. Reishi should be considered in case of animal neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury, Canine Cognitive Dysfunction, degenerative myelopathy, spinal cord injury, stroke, or epilepsy.”
“Ganoderma (Reishi) helps to stabilize the mast cells to inhibit their release of histamine. Histamines are released by mast cells in reaction to allergens or pathogenic invaders. An overactive response—such as we find with allergies—can cause itching, runny nose, eye irritation, and redness of mucous membranes.”
“The mushroom’s compounds can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Reishi interacts in a positive way with natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, and stimulates cytokine expression and secretion.”

A 2013 scientific review also had encouraging words regarding the health benefits of Reishi Mushrooms.

It reports:

“The bioactive compounds found in the G. lucidum (Reishi) mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer.”

Slippery Elm

Slippery Elm is included in ProDog’s Digest supplement

Slippery Elm is a substance derived from the inner bark of the Slippery Elm tree, or Ulmus rubra. It’s often used in herbal medicine for dogs, and contains various potential health benefits. Slippery Elm contains mucilage; a gel-like substance that soothes the digestive tract through its gentle coating mechanism. This eases irritation and inflammation, whilst relieving issues such as diarrhoea, constipation, and other digestive upsets in dogs.

Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, Slippery Elm is also useful in alleviating the discomfort that results from gastrointestinal health conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastritis. It may also aid in throat irritation and cough due to the soothing, calming effect produced by its mucilage.

The evidence:

A 2013 study in The Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine published results of Slippery Elm’s effects on vomiting and diarrhoea in digs and cats. It reported:

“82% of 1928 vomiting dogs and 77% of 1064 vomiting cats responded to PEPPS (potency-enhanced polyanionic phyto-saccharide of elm mucilage) within 2 days of 4 doses. 93% of 2024 dogs and 79% of 1184 cats with diarrhea responded to PEPPS within 2 days of 4 doses. PEPPS appears useful for managing vomiting and diarrhea in dogs and cats.”

As research suggests, Slippery Elm shows the potential for being a helpful addition to the diets of dogs with gastrointestinal health issues.

Taurine

Taurine is included in ProDog’s Muscle Plus and Revive supplements

Taurine is a non-essential amino acid which is most commonly found in meat. It plays various important roles in dogs’ bodies, such as muscle function and digestive health, as well as bile production. Bile ensures effective digestion of fats, which are crucial for canine health.

Whilst dogs manufacture their own Taurine from the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine, large breed dogs carry the risk of developing Taurine deficiency, especially as they age. This is because compared to smaller dogs their Taurine production is slower, which is why nutritional supplementation can be helpful.

The evidence:

In 2007, researchers performed a study to determine the Taurine production rates of large breed mongrel dogs compared with smaller Beagles. They found that the Taurine production rate was significantly lower in the larger dogs, especially those whose diets were limited in sulphur-containing amino acids. They reported:

“…the results support the hypothesis that large compared with small dogs have lower TBR (Taurine biosynthesis rate) when fed diets near-limiting in dietary SAA (sulphur amino acids)…”

A 2020 study aimed to determine the effects of dietary Taurine supplementation on the muscle growth of a group of 70 turbot (fish). Their findings were:

“Results showed that, in regard to the muscle fiber frequency distribution, diameter class 20 was significantly higher in the dietary taurine supplemented groups than that in the two control groups. Muscle fibers density was significantly higher in 1.2% of dietary taurine supplemented group than that in all the other groups.”

As research suggests, Taurine supplementation may be a helpful way to maintain muscle mass and function, as well as preventing Taurine deficiency and its potential resulting complications.

Turkey Tail Mushrooms

Turkey Tail Mushrooms are included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Turkey Tail is a species of mushroom that can be found growing on dead logs in most countries. Also known as Trametes, Turkey Tail Mushrooms are rich in polysaccharides such as beta-glucans and terpenes, which makes them a potent source of immune-enhancing compounds.

Turkey Tail Mushrooms have been extensively researched for their immune-regulating properties, as well as their capacity to aid in the regulation of cholesterol levels, the inflammatory response, and blood sugar levels. These mushrooms help to down-regulate the inflammatory response in dogs with overactive immune systems and are also a fantastic prebiotic, which is key in regards to gut health support.

The evidence:

Research into medicinal mushrooms, including Turkey Tail, is continually expanding in both the healthcare and nutrition fields. Here are some helpful findings:

A 2023 scientific review on various species of mushroom, including Turkey Tail, was performed by researchers. They found various health benefits to be associated with the administration of all the mushroom species they reviewed. They reported:

“Medicinal mushrooms are known for their potential to improve immunity, regulate metabolism, and prevent many diseases. The abundance of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and vitamins in medicinal mushrooms is a valuable source of biologically active compounds that can contribute to maintaining the health and well-being of the body.”

In a 2013 study, researchers evaluated the effects of various species of medicinal mushroom (including Turkey Tail) on the survival rate and immune response to several types of cancer. Here’s what they found:

“The researchers found that the control group had a 60% survival rate compared to 86.6% in the PSK (polysaccharide K, found in Turkey Tail Mushrooms) treatment group, a finding that was statistically significant.”

They also reported:

“As this review has demonstrated, mushrooms show great promise as adjunctive treatment used in conjunction with typical care for patients with cancer as well as treatment to stimulate the immune response to cancer.”

Turmeric

Turmeric is included in ProDog’s Protect and Flexx supplements

Turmeric is a spice that’s known for its vibrant golden colour. It’s commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine, as well as in other therapeutic modalities. It contains circumin; the active compound that allows Turmeric to provide the various health benefits it’s known for. Curcumin contains antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties.

As inflammation is the key driver of most diseases, Turmeric’s anti-inflammatory properties are especially helpful, and the most common reason the spice is used in the medicinal sense. Turmeric is one of the most powerful anti-inflammatory agents available, in both natural medicine and pharmaceutical settings.

Combined with black pepper as it is in ProDog’s Flexx and Protect supplements, Turmeric becomes even more bioavailable, thus more effective. This combination can aid in the reduction of arthritis symptoms, liver disease, gastrointestinal issues, and various other health concerns.

The evidence:

A 2014 study tested the effects of circumin, the active compound in Turmeric, against ibuprofen in a randomised trial. Two groups of osteoarthritic patients were given either ibuprofen or turmeric and evaluated for any improvement in symptoms, as well as any adverse effects of either treatment. The researchers reported:

“…the number of events of abdominal pain/discomfort was significantly higher in the ibuprofen group than that in the C. domestica (circumin) extracts group. Most subjects (96%-97%) were satisfied with the treatment, and two-thirds rated themselves as improved in a global assessment.”

They went on to say:

“C. domestica (circumin) extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.”

In a 2004 study, various anti-inflammatory agents, including circumin, were evaluated in their efficacy on tumour proliferation (growth). Here are the findings:

“Overall these results indicate that aspirin and ibuprofen are least potent, while resveratrol, curcumin, celecoxib, and tamoxifen are the most potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agents of those we studied.”

As these studies suggest, Turmeric can be a helpful agent in reducing inflammation, which is responsible for various health concerns and diseases.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is included in ProDog’s Protect and Flexx supplements

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, and is found in its natural form in citrus fruits, berries, and certain vegetables. It’s known for its ability to protect cells from oxidative stress and free radical scavengers, as well as rejuvenating them once damage has already occurred.

Vitamin C is also a key contributor in the synthesis of collagen, which is essential for the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Whilst dogs are able to produce their own Vitamin C via the liver (unlike humans), they do require additional help through supplementation during times of stress, illness, exposure to toxins, or as they get older.

The evidence:

Lots of studies are available on Vitamin C supplementation, particularly regarding joint health and immune system function. Here are some helpful examples:

In a study on vitamins A, C, D, and E, researchers evaluated the effects of each on the symptoms and potential improvement of osteoarthritis. They reported:

“Vitamins A, C, and E are the major antioxidants in the diet or in dietary supplement products that have been identified as having a potential for antioxidant activity in the processes associated with OA (osteoarthritis).”

They went on to say:

“There are at least four possible pathways in which these nutrients can influence OA (osteoarthritis): protection against oxidative damage; modulation of the inflammatory response; cellular differentiation; and biologic actions related to bone and collagen synthesis.”

In 2021, a study was performed to evaluate the effects of Vitamin C on oxidative stress and antibody production in vaccinated calves. Researchers found the following:

“The concentration of the serum reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), and the oxidative stress index (OSI), which is calculated from the d-ROMs and biological antioxidant potential, were significantly lower at 8 weeks of age in the VC (Vitamin C) group than in the control group. The antibody titres to H. somni (calf vaccine) in the VC group were significantly higher than those in the control group at 12 weeks of age after the second vaccination.”

They also concluded:

“Vitamin C supplementation to calves may reduce oxidative stress and enhance the antibody production after vaccination with H. somni.”

Zinc Picolinate

Zinc is included in ProDog’s Protect supplement

Zinc is a mineral that plays an essential role in various functions of the canine body, including enzyme reactions, protein production, and hormone production/regulation. Crucial for maintaining a healthy gut barrier, Zinc is also the first mineral that becomes depleted when pets get stressed. It is vital for balanced immune system functioning, thyroid health, and skin and coat health. Around 5% of the Zinc in the canine body is found within the skin, which makes it an important element for skin and coat health.

Zinc deficiency can result in various complications for dogs, such as immune system issues, skin issues, and wound healing, among others. Zinc responsive dermatosis, a skin condition that affects mostly large and northern breeds, can occur in dogs with low Zinc levels. Dogs on elimination diets or restricted ingredient diets are also more prone to experiencing a deficiency.

It is important to highlight that zinc supplementation is available in more than one form. zinc picolinate is one of the best absorbed in dogs and the reason we selected it for our supplements.

The evidence:

A 2021 scientific review on the importance of Zinc in canine health and nutrition highlights some fundamental observations regarding the mineral’s crucial contribution. Here are a few of its statements:

“The optimal zinc status of dogs promotes health, wellbeing, and increases lifespan.”
“…zinc transporters are present in skin cells of the epidermis, having an important role in health and skin homeostasis.”
“…poor zinc status can impact fatty acids metabolism, and therefore, aggravate skin lesions. Furthermore, Marsh et al. reported a synergic effect of linoleic acid and zinc supplementation in healthy dogs, with an improvement in coat gloss and coat scale, and a decrease in the transepidermal water loss, which highlights the role of zinc in promoting the health of skin and coat.”

A 1997 study evaluated the effectiveness of Zinc supplementation on 17 dogs with Zinc responsive dermatosis. Their findings were:

“Fifteen of 17 dogs had complete resolution of lesions after zinc supplementation. Lesions recurred in 9 of 16 dogs. Approximately half of the recurrent lesions were a result of a missed dose or a decrease in dosage or frequency of zinc supplementation.”

As these studies suggest, Zinc provides important benefits for dogs’ skin and coat health, as well as their overall health and longevity. It also shows encouraging potential for aiding in the resolution of various skin health conditions, particularly Zinc responsive dermatosis.

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